The history of the test avtopoligona date back 30 years of the twentieth century. Our task was to use the world automotiveexperience, to adapt produced in our cars and trucks analogues of leading foreign firms to road and operational conditions of the country. Conduct the full range of research, laboratory and road tests can only be based on the test site.
The first experimental site landfill was opened in February, U.S. Institute 1931 near the villages Mashkina-Sokolov northwest ofArt. Khimki Oktyabrskaya Railway It was located on 10-15 car garage, workshop, power plant and a residential village for a fewdozen families. Despite its modest capabilities, on this basis, for one warm season from April to October, have been successfullytested in-car Ford and Ford-AA, which involved engineers and test drivers us. However, because of the proximity to the growingMoscow and the little ground at the end of 1931 has been eliminated.
Even a small experience was not wasted. Subsequent guidance offices and ministries included construction of high-speed tracklength of 4 km, 3.5 km and dynamometer test complex road 10 km long with a variety of coatings, cobblestone roads and test-gradient of up to 60%. Were the main tasks for the landfill research, quality control, batch production, testing of prototypes andcomparative tests of foreign-made counterparts. Implementation of these projects was postponed for a long time, and the testshave gone on the heroic path-union motor runs. The most famous was the Karakum, length of 10 000 km. Such an experience of long transitions cars different climatic zones in different road conditions proved invaluable, but it is not the most rational andvery expensive way to test people and vehicles.
After the end of World War II has been redesigned to produce type and put a whole line of new cars. While the factory testersagain led the column runs in the country, experts are making us a land plot for the construction of the landfill. In addition to the complexities of land acquisition was necessary to take into account the new zoning for us auto industry that had developed after the war. In connection with the construction of new plants in Minsk, Kremenchug, Miass and other cities landfill was to beaccessible and equidistant from all the testing center.
Suitable site was found on State Forest lands in New Kartsevskom Dmitrov forestry forestry. Was given for the construction of 380 hectares of land.
In early 1960 the decision to build the landfill was taken at the government level. Final approved project included the following description of the main buildings.
Torque road: total - 9 km, horizontal straight section - 4 km, the estimated maximum speed - 300 km / h. Motorway: length - 14.1 km, the estimated speed - 200 km / h. Paved cobblestone road: 8.2 km length, design speed - 100 km / h. Test rises - 20 - 70%. Dirt roads - 36 km length.
In addition, the project included the service roads and access roads, dust chamber, a water bath, a platform for testing steering gears and other objects, as well as the basic structure of the main and service buildings, boiler room and four residential apartment buildings and hotels.
Phased commissioning structures landfill allowed to start work testing center in 1964. The official start date is determined by order № 123 from July 23, 1964 Chairman of the State Committee of tractors and agricultural machinery, Gosplan USSR NIStrokina "On the establishment of a branch U.S. - Central Research facility".
One of the oldest and most distinguished workers in the landfill, Ph.D. SA Laptev, in his article of the anniversary of the magazine "Automotive Industry" for 1994 cited the following historical chronology commissioning elements of the test set:
speed and dirt roads, office building - 1964;
paved road with a flat and shaped tiling, main building, boiler house - 1965;
dynamometer road - 1966;
"Belgian pavement", "short-wave" - 1967;
"Shumosozdayuschaya" road "stamped cobblestone" - 1968;
"Track with replaceable irregularities" - 1969;
ups 4, 6 and 8% - 1970;
rise 10%, the balance of 50 m - 1971;
Corniche - 1972;
ups 30, 40, 50 and 60%, the area of heavy dirt road, dust chamber, shallow and deep pools, mud bath complex passive safety, road bunker complex - 1974;
laboratory building and the chamber corrosion testing - 1977;
sand test site - 1979;
gravel road for corrosion testing - 1981;
in 1956 U.S. experts have pointed to the need to develop methods test equipment at low temperatures. North test station in Susumane Magadan Oblast. was launched in 1981;
research laboratory with a wind tunnel for field tests of cars and buses - 1987
Especially it is necessary to mention one of the most important and unique structures landfill, which is a complex consisting of long ascents of small and large slope, and the "mountain road" with the length of about 1.5 km from the radius of the curve from 20 to 80 m. Prospectors and GUI designers' Soyuzdorproekt "excellent entered this complex project to the existing terrain.
ther similar object, only in Russia and has no analogues in the CIS countries, has become a full-scale wind tunnel. By design refers to the pipes of the closed type. The total channel length is 220 m. Working part of the $ 4.5 m has h6h18 longitudinally slotted perforations of the walls and ceiling. The air flow creates a fan heater, controlled thyristor system in frequency and angle of rotation of the blades. Aerodynamic forces acting on the vehicle, measured six-component balance electromechanical platform type. The maximum mass of the test object - 8000 kg. In the test section mounted roller dynamometer on which to conduct research with simulated loading conditions the engine and transmission car.
The variety of options provided by the laboratory is that in addition to transportation facilities, wind tunnel tested sports-technical equipment, investigated resistance to wind loads and roof dome recreated the Cathedral of Christ the Savior.
Virtually all of the latest generations of cars operating in our country, passed the tests at the site, and it is difficult to single out someone is not at the expense of others. But one episode that has become part of history and society, deserves special mention. This is a test "of Europe's favorite" of the mid 60's - FIAT-124 before its conversion into a national favorite in our "penny" VAZ-2101. Cooperation with AvtoVAZ TSNIAP us, as it was then avtopoligona U.S., began in 1966 The plant is only formed department chief engineer, and the already hard avtopoligone were tested car Fiat 124 and the first prototypes of the VAZ-2101, made in Italy. Then, after the start of series production in summer 1970 started to work here first vazovskaya team: several dozen production cars were reliability assessment and verification performance. The result were hundreds of design changes that allowed the machine to adapt to the conditions of our country.
The first foreign partners, to evaluate the significance avtopoligona as a serious test center, were car-factory ELISA (GDR), which in the 1969 conducted tests of their trucks. In the early 70's began the scientific and technical ties with the Czechoslovak firm "Tatra", tested on the roads of the polygon models of cars "Tatra-613" and cargo "Tatra-138."
For more than forty years of its existence, has become the leading U.S. car testing in Russia and international fame center for testing and certification of vehicles. He is one of the largest in Europe, the only full height in the CIS Research and Test Center, able to solve most of the problems the automotive industry. Going into the science and technology as the U.S. branch of road tests, the landfill has become an independent and self-sufficient in many ways unique scientific complex. From the initial area of 3.8 square kilometers of its modern territory increased to 25 square kilometers The number of employees was at times up to 1200 -1300 people. And despite the problems of transition to a market economy, budget cuts of up to 2.5 - 3% of the total, U.S. avtopoligona retains the intellectual, scientific and production potential.